Fastener Requirements

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Information in this document has been gathered from the Ontario Building Code.

 

The Ontario Building Code outlines specifications for the type and number of nails used for when building under section 9 of the code. There are some unique connections for farm buildings built under SB-11 that aren’t described in the code, such as through bolted plate beams. Use this as a guide, and double check with the Ontario Building Code or with your chief building official.

Nails and Screws

Table 9.23.3.1. Diameter of Nails for Framing    
Item Column 1 Column 2
  Minimum Length of Nails, mm Minimum Diameter of Nails, mm
1. 57 2.87
2. 62 3.25
3. 76 3.66
4. 82 3.66
5. 101 4.88

 

9.23.3.1. Length of Nails

(1) All nails shall be long enough so that not less than half their required length penetrates the second member.

9.23.3.3. Prevention of Splitting

(1) Splitting of wood members shall be minimized by staggering the nails in the direction of the grain and by keeping nails well in from the edges.

Connections

Table 9.23.3.5 Fasteners for Sheathing and Subflooring            
Item Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 Column 6
  Element Minimum Length of Fasteners, mm       Minimum Number or Maximum Spacing of Fasteners
    Common or Spiral Nails Ring Thread Nails or Screws Roofing Nails Staples  
1. Board lumber 184 mm or less wide. 51 45 N/A 51 2 per support
2. Board lumber more than 184 mm wide 51 45 N/A 51 3 per support
3. Fiberboard sheathing up to 13mm thick N/A N/A 44 28 150 mm (o.c.) along edges and 300mm (o.c.) along intermediate supports
4. Gypsum sheathing up to 13mm thick N/A N/A 44 N/A  
5. Plywood, OSB or waferboard up to 10mm thick 51 45 N/A 38  
6. Plywood, OSB or waferboard over 10 mm and up to 20mm thick 51 45 N/A 51  
7. Plywood, OSB or waferboard over 20 mm and up to 25mm thick 57 51 N/A N/A  

 

(5) Where roof sheathing supports are spaced at more than 406 mm o.c., the maximum spacing of fasteners for roof sheathing shall be 150 mm along edges and intermediate supports.

 

Table 9.23.3.4. Nailing for framing      
Item Column 1 Column 2 Column 3
  Construction Detail Minimum Length of Nails, mm Minimum Number or Maximum Spacing of Nails
1. Floor joist to plate – toenail 82 2
2. Wood or metal strapping to the underside of floor joists 57 2
3. Cross bridging to joists 57 2 at each end
4. Double header or trimmer joists 76 300 mm (o.c.)
5. Floor joist to stud (balloon construction) 76 2
6. Ledger strip to wood beam 82 2 per joist
7. Joist to joist splice (see also Table 9.23.13.8.) 76 2 at each end
8. Header joist end nailed to joists along perimeter 101 3
9. Tail joist to adjacent header joist

(end nailed) around openings

82 5
    101 3
10. Each header joist to adjacent trimmer joist

(end nailed) around openings

82 5
    101 3
11. Stud to wall plate (each end) toenail

Or end nail

62 4
    82 2
12. Double studs at openings, or studs at walls or wall intersections and corners 76 750 mm (o.c.)
13. Double top wall plates 76 600 mm (o.c.)
14. Bottom wall plate or sole plate to joists or blocking (exterior walls)(1) 82 400 mm (o.c.)
15. Interior walls to framing or subflooring 82 600 mm (o.c)
16. Horizontal member over openings in non-loadbearing walls-each end 82 2
17. Lintels to studs 82 2 at each end
18. Ceiling joist to plate – toes nail each end 82 2
19. Roof rafter, roof truss or roof joist to plate – toe nail 82 3
20. Rafter plate to each ceiling joist 101 2
21. Rafter to joist (with ridge supported) 76 3
22. Rafter to joist (with ridge unsupported) 76 See Table 9.23.13.8.
23. Gusset plate to each rafter at peak 57 4
24. Rafter to ridge board – toe nail – end nail 82 3
25. Collar tie to rafter – each end 76 3
26. Collar tie lateral support to each collar tie 57 2
27. Jack rafter to hip or valley rafter 82 2
28. Roof strut to rafter 76 3
29. Roof strut to loadbearing wall- toe nail 82 2
30. 38 mm x 140 mm or less plank decking to support 82 2
31. Plank decking wider than 38mm x 140mm to support 82 3
32. 38 mm edge laid plank decking to support (toe nail) 76 1
33. 38 mm edge laid plank to each other 76 450 mm (o.c.)

(1)See sentence 9.23.3.4.(2).

Where the bottom wall plate or sole plate of an exterior wall is not nailed to joists or blocking in conformance with Table 9.23.3.4., the exterior wall may be fastened to the floor framing by,

  1. Having plywood OSB or waferboard sheathing extend down over floor framing and fastened to the floor framing by nails or staples conforming to Article 9.23.3.5. or
  2. Tying the wall framing to the floor framing by 50 mm wide galvanized-metal strips,
    1. Not less than 0.41mm in thickness,
    2. Spaced not more than 1.2m apart, and
    3. Fastened at each end with at least two 63 mm nails.